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Apa itu Standard Code?

January 16, 2010

Pengenalan Standard Code

Standard code merupakan makanan wajib bagi seorang engineer. Standard code ini menjadi dasar acuan engineer baik dalam design, testing, fabrikasi, instalasi, maupun commisioning. Selain itu juga ada beberapa code yang menjelaskan acuan untuk repair atau maintenance. Itu semua hanya mempunyai tujuan satu yang ujung-ujungnya untuk safety, baik yang berdampak terhadap humanity maupun terhadap sistem itu sendiri.

Masing-masing disiplin mempunyai code sendiri. Dasar pengembangannya berdasarkan pada beberapa kasus kecelakaan sebelumnya.  Secara umum standard merupakan sebagai persyaratan perancangan yang baik dan benar sedangkan code itu sendiri merupakan produk dari lembaga standard yang disesuaikan dengan disiplin dan ditandai dengan kode-kode tertentu. Ada beberapa standard yang digunakan oleh engineer antara lain:

  1. ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers)
  2. API (American Petroleum Institute)
  3. ANSI (American National Standards Institute)
  4. ASTM (American Standard Testing and Material)
  5. ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers)
  6. AWS (American Welding Society)
  7. NACE (National Association of Corrosion Engineers)
  8. NFPA (National Fire Protection Association)
  9. JIS (Japanese Industrial Standard)
  10. DIN (Deutsches Institute fur Normung)
  11. TEMA (Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association)
  12. EJMA (Expansion joint Manufacturers Association) , dll

Adapun beberapa code yang digunakan antara lain:

Code ASME untuk Pressure Vessel dan Boilers:

  • ASME Section I. Power Boilers
  • ASME Section II. Materials

Part A: Ferrous Material Specifications
Part B: Nonferrous Material Specifications
Part C: Specifications for Welding, Rods, Electrodes, and Filler Metals
Part D: Properties

  • ASME Section III. Rules for Construction of Nuclear Components

Subsection NCA: General Requirements for Divisions 1 and 2
Division 1

Subsection NB: Class 1 Components
Subsection NC: Class 2 Components
Subsection ND: Class 3 Components
Subsection NE: Class MC Components
Subsection NF: Supports
Subsection NG: Core Support Structures
Subsection NH: Class 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Service
Appendices

Division 2. Code for Concrete Containments

Division 3. Containment Systems for Storage and Transport Packaging of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High Level Radioactive Materials and Waste

  • ASME Section IV. Heating Boilers
  • ASME Section V. Nondestructive Examination
  • ASME Section VI. Recommended Rules for Care and Operation of Heating Boilers
  • ASME Section VII. Recommended Guidelines for the Care of Power Boilers
  • ASME Section VIII. Pressure Vessels

Division 1. Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels
Division 2. Alternative Rules
Division 3. Alternative Rules for Construction of High Pressure Vessels

  • ASME Section IX. Welding and Brazing Qualifications
  • ASME Section X. Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels
  • ASME Section XI. Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components

Code ASME Untuk Piping & Pipeline;

  • ASME B31.1, Power Piping
  • ASME B31.3, Process Piping
  • ASME B31.4, Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids
  • ASME B31.5, Refrigeration Piping and Heat Transfer Components
  • ASME B31.8, Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems
  • ASME B31.8S, Managing System Integrity of Gas Pipelines
  • ASME B31.9, Building Services Piping
  • ASME B31.11, Slurry Transportation Piping Systems
  • ASME B31G-1991, Manual for Determining the Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipelines

Code API antara lain:

  • API Spec. 5L    Line Pipe
  • API Spec. 6D    Pipeline Valves
  • API Spec. 6FA    Fire Test for Valves
  • API Spec. 12D    Field Welded Tanks for Storage of Production Liquids
  • API Spec. 12F    Shop Welded Tanks for Storage of Production Liquids
  • API Spec. 12J    Oil and Gas Separators
  • API Spec. 12K    Indirect Type Oil Field Heaters
  • API Spec. 12L    Specification for Vertical and Horizontal Emulsion Treaters
  • API Spec. 12P    Specification for Fibreglass Reinforced Plastic Tanks
  • API Std. 510    Pressure Vessel Inspection Code
  • API Std. 526    Flanged Steel Safety – Relief Valves
  • API Std. 527    Seat Tightness of Pressure Relief Valves
  • API Std. 594    Wafer and Wafer-Lug Check Valves
  • API Std. 598    Valve Inspection and Testing
  • API Std. 599    Metal Plug Valves – Flanged and Butt-Welding Ends
  • API Std. 600    Steel Gate Valves – Flanged and Butt-Welding Ends
  • API Std. 602    Compact Steel Gate Valves – Flanged Threaded, Welding, and Extended-Body Ends
  • API Std. 603    Class 150, Cast, Corrosion-Resistant, Flanged-End Gate Valves
  • API Std. 607    Fire Test for Soft-Seated Quarter-Turn Valves
  • API Std. 608    Metal Ball Valves – Flanged and Butt-Welding Ends
  • API Std. 609    Lug – and Wafer – Type Butterfly Valves
  • API Std. 610    Centrifugal Pumps For Petroleum, Heavy Duty Chemical and Gas Industry Services
  • API Std. 611    General Purpose Steam Turbines for Refinery Services
  • API Std. 612    Special Purpose Steam Turbines for Refinery Services
  • API Std. 613    Special Purpose Gear Units for Refinery Services
  • API Std. 614    Lubrication, Shaft-Sealing and Control Oil Systems for Special Purpose Application
  • API Std. 615    Sound Control of Mechanical Equipment for Refinery Services
  • API Std. 616    Gas Turbines for Refinery Services
  • API Std. 617    Centrifugal Compressors for General Refinery Services
  • API Std. 618    Reciprocating Compressors for General Refinery Services
  • API Std. 619    Rotary-Type Positive Displacement Compressors for General Refinery Services
  • API Std. 620    Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low Pressure Storage Tanks
  • API Std. 630    Tube and Header Dimensions for Fired Heaters for Refinery Service
  • API Std. 650    Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage
  • API Std. 660    Heat Exchangers for General Refinery Service
  • API Std. 661    Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers for General Refinery Service
  • API Std. 670    Vibrations, Axial Position, and Bearing-Temperature Monitoring System
  • API Std. 671    Special Purpose Coupling for Refinery Service
  • API Std. 674    Positive Displacement Pumps – Reciprocating
  • API Std. 675    Positive Displacement Pumps – Controlled Volume
  • API Std. 676    Positive Displacement Pumps – Rotary
  • API Std. 677    General Purpose Gear Units for Refineries Services
  • API Std. 678    Accelerometer-Base Vibration Monitoring System
  • API Std. 1104    Welding Pipelines and Related Facilities
  • API Std. 2000    Venting Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Storage Tanks – Non-Refrigerated and Refrigerated
  • API Std. 2530    Measurement Standard Chapter 14, Natural Gas
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